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Scientific References

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This section of the website features journal references relevant to grass-based production. The references are sorted into the categories listed directly below. Click on the links to jump to a specific category.

  1. Fats in products from pasture-raised and confinement-raised animals
  2. Health benefits of diets with a low ratio of Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids.
  3. Vitamin content of products from pasture-raised and confinement-raised animals
  4. Environmental consequences of grass-based versus confinement-based
    animal production

  5. Animal health and welfare in grass-based and confinement-based animal
    production

  6. Questionable ingredients in feedlot diets
  7. Consequences of the use of feed antibiotics, steroids, and other drugs in animal production
  8. Worker health in animal confinement operations
  9. Meat quality
  10. Food Safety
  11. Added health benefits of products from pastured animals

1) Fats in products from pasture-raised and confinement-raised animals

AbuGhazaleh, A. A., D. J. Schingoethe, A. R. Hippen, and K. F. Kalscheur. "Milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid Response to Fish Oil Supplementation of Diets Differing in Fatty Acid Profiles." J Dairy Sci 86, no. 3 (2003): 944-53.

Ahn, D. U., H. H. Sunwoo, F. H. Wolfe, and J. S. Sim. "Effects of Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Strain of Hen on the Fatty Acid Composition, Storage Stability, and Flavor Characteristics of Chicken Eggs." Poult Sci 74, no. 9 (1995): 1540-7.

Bauman, D. E., D. M. Barbano, D. A. Dwyer, and J. M. Griinari. "Technical Note: Production of Butter with Enhanced Conjugated Linoleic Acid for Use in Biomedical Studies with Animal Models " J Dairy Sci 83, no. 11 (2000): 2422-5.

Bendall, J. G. "Aroma Compounds of Fresh Milk from New Zealand Cows Fed Different Diets." J Agric Food Chem 49, no. 10 (2001): 4825-32.
Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay, and M. Doreau. "Effect of Different Types of Forages, Animal Fat or Marine Oils in Cow's Diet on Milk Fat Secretion and Composition, Especially Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids." 70, no. 1-2 (2000): 31-48.
Chouinard, P. Y., L. Corneau, W. R. Butler, Y. Chilliard, J. K. Drackley, and D. E. Bauman. "Effect of Dietary Lipid Source on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Concentrations in Milk Fat." J Dairy Sci 84, no. 3 (2001): 680-90.
Collomb, M., U. Butikofer, R. Sieber, O. Bosset, and B. Jeangros. "Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans Fatty Acid Composition of Cows' Milk Fat Produced in Lowlands and Highlands." J Dairy Res 68, no. 3 (2001): 519-23.
Cordain, L., S. B. Eaton, J. B. Miller, N. Mann, and K. Hill. "The Paradoxical Nature of Hunter-Gatherer Diets: Meat-Based, yet Non-Atherogenic." Eur J Clin Nutr 56 Suppl 1 (2002): S42-52.
Cordain, L., B. A. Watkins, G. L. Florant, M. Kelher, L. Rogers, and Y. Li. "Fatty Acid Analysis of Wild Ruminant Tissues: Evolutionary Implications for Reducing Diet-Related Chronic Disease." Eur J Clin Nutr 56, no. 3 (2002): 181-91.
Couvreur, S., C. Hurtau*,1, C. Lopez, L. Delaby and J. L. Peyraud. “The Linear Relationship between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties” Journal of Dairy Science, 2006. 89:1956–1969. [Note: study available free of charge at the Journal of Dairy Science website.]
Dannenberger, D., G. Nuernberg, et al. (2007). "Diet Alters the Fatty Acid Composition of Individual Phospholipid Classes in Beef Muscle." J Agric Food Chem 55(2): 452-460
Davidson, B. C. "Seasonal Changes in Leaf Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Nine Plants Consumed by Two African Herbivores." Lipids 33, no. 1 (1998): 109-13.
Davidson, B. C., A. Giangregorio, and L. A. Girao. "The Fatty Acids Available to Wild Herbivores from Indigenous Plants Is Dependent on Both Plant Species and Season." In Vivo 4, no. 1 (1990): 71-5.
Demeyer, D., and M. Doreau. "Targets and Procedures for Altering Ruminant Meat and Milk Lipids." Proc Nutr Soc 58, no. 3 (1999): 593-607.
Dhiman, T.R. "Dietary Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Cows' Milk." U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, 1995 Research Summaries (1995).
Dhiman, T. R., G. R. Anand, L. D. Satter, and M. W. Pariza. "Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Milk from Cows Fed Different Diets." J Dairy Sci 82, no. 10 (1999): 2146-56.
Duckett, S. K., D. G. Wagner, L. D. Yates, H. G. Dolezal, and S. G. May. "Effects of Time on Feed on Beef Nutrient Composition." J Anim Sci 71, no. 8 (1993): 2079-88.
Ferrier, L. K., L. J. Caston, S. Leeson, J. Squires, B. J. Weaver, and B. J. Holub. "Alpha-Linolenic Acid- and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Eggs from Hens Fed Flaxseed: Influence on Blood Lipids and Platelet Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Humans." Am J Clin Nutr 62, no. 1 (1995): 81-6.
Griswold, K. E., G. A. Apgar, R. A. Robinson, B. N. Jacobson, D. Johnson, and H. D. Woody. "Effectiveness of Short-Term Feeding Strategies for Altering Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Beef." J Anim Sci 81, no. 7 (2003): 1862-71.
Grummer, R. R. "Effect of Feed on the Composition of Milk Fat." J Dairy Sci 74, no. 9 (1991): 3244-57.
Hauswirth, C. B., M. R. Scheeder, and J. H. Beer. "High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Alpine Cheese: The Basis for an Alpine Paradox." Circulation 109, no. 1 (2004): 103-7.
Hebeisen, D. F., F. Hoeflin, H. P. Reusch, E. Junker, and B. H. Lauterburg. "Increased Concentrations of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Milk and Platelet Rich Plasma of Grass-Fed Cows." Int J Vitam Nutr Res 63, no. 3 (1993): 229-33.
Jiang, J., L. Bjoerck, R. Fonden, and M. Emanuelson. "Occurrence of Conjugated Cis-9,Trans-11-Octadecadienoic Acid in Bovine Milk: Effects of Feed and Dietary Regimen." J Dairy Sci 79, no. 3 (1996): 438-45.

Kanwar, R. K., A. K. Macgibbon, et al. (2007). "Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice." Clin Exp Allergy. Read summary.            

Koizumi, I., Y. Suzuki, and J. J. Kaneko. "Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Lipids of Cattle, Pigs and Birds." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 37, no. 6 (1991): 545-54.
Kolver, E. S., and L. D. Muller. "Performance and Nutrient Intake of High Producing Holstein Cows Consuming Pasture or a Total Mixed Ration." J Dairy Sci 81, no. 5 (1998): 1403-11.

Kraft, Jana, John K.G. Kramer, Friedrich Schoene, Jim R. Chambers, and Gerhard Hahreise. 2008. “Extensive Analysis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, CLA, trans-18:1 Isomers, and Plasmalogenic Lipids in Different Retail Beef types” J. Agric Food Chemistry  56:4775-4782.

Lopez-Bote, C.J., R.Sanz Arias, A.I. Rey, A. Castano, B. Isabel, J. Thos. "Effect of Free-Range Feeding on N-3 Fatty Acid [omega-3 fatty acid] and Alpha-Tocopherol [vitamin E] Content and Oxidative Stability of Eggs." Animal Feed Science and Technology 72 (1998): 33-40.
Mandell, I. B., J. G. Buchanan-Smith, and C. P. Campbell. "Effects of Forage Vs Grain Feeding on Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, and Beef Quality in Limousin-Cross Steers When Time on Feed Is Controlled." J Anim Sci 76, no. 10 (1998): 2619-30.
Massiera, F;  Barbry, P; Guesnet, P; Joly, A; Luquet, S; Brest,, CM; Mohsen-Kanson, T; Amri, E and G. Ailhaud. A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations. Journal of Lipid Research. August 2010. Volume 51, pages 2352-2361.
Meyer, H. H., A. Rowell, W. J. Streich, B. Stoffel, and R. R. Hofmann. "Accumulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Concentrate Selecting Ruminants." Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 120, no. 2 (1998): 263-8.
Mills, E. W., J. W. Comerford, R. Hollender, H. W. Harpster, B. House, and W. R. Henning. "Meat Composition and Palatability of Holstein and Beef Steers as Influenced by Forage Type and Protein Source." J Anim Sci 70, no. 8 (1992): 2446-51.
Moloney, A. P., M. T. Mooney, J. P. Kerry, and D. J. Troy. "Producing Tender and Flavoursome Beef with Enhanced Nutritional Characteristics." Proc Nutr Soc 60, no. 2 (2001): 221-9.
Naughton, J. M., K. O'Dea, and A. J. Sinclair. "Animal Foods in Traditional Australian Aboriginal Diets: Polyunsaturated and Low in Fat." Lipids 21, no. 11 (1986): 684-90.
Ollis, T. E., B. J. Meyer, and P. R. Howe. "Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids." Ann Nutr Metab 43, no. 6 (1999): 346-55.
O'Sullivan, A., K. O'Sullivan, K. Galvin, A. P. Moloney, D. J. Troy, and J. P. Kerry. "Grass Silage Versus Maize Silage Effects on Retail Packaged Beef Quality." J Anim Sci 80, no. 6 (2002): 1556-63.
Pearce, J., and D. M. Chestnutt. "A Comparison of the Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue Triglyceride from Grass-Fed and Intensively-Reared Lambs." Proc Nutr Soc 33, no. 3 (1974): 99A-100A.
Peterson, D. G., J. A. Kelsey, and D. E. Bauman. "Analysis of Variation in Cis-9, Trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Milk Fat of Dairy Cows." J Dairy Sci 85, no. 9 (2002): 2164-72.
Petit, H. V., G. F. Tremblay, P. Savoie, D. Tremblay, and J. M. Wauthy. "Milk Yield, Intake, and Blood Traits of Lactating Cows Fed Grass Silage Conserved under Different Harvesting Methods." J Dairy Sci 76, no. 5 (1993): 1365-74.
Piperova, L. S., and J. Pearce. "A Comparison of the Effects of Feeding Concentrate Diets, Based on Either Maize or Barley, or Dried Grass on Adipose Tissue Lipogenesis in Sheep." Int J Biochem 14, no. 5 (1982): 351-4.
Ray, E. E., R. P. Kromann, and E. J. Cosma. "Relationships between Fatty Acid Composition of Lamb Fat and Dietary Ingredients." J Anim Sci 41, no. 6 (1975): 1767-74.
Rule, D. C., K. S. Broughton, S. M. Shellito, and G. Maiorano. "Comparison of Muscle Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Concentrations of Bison, Beef Cattle, Elk, and Chicken." J Anim Sci 80, no. 5 (2002): 1202-11.
Scheideler, S. E., and G. W. Froning. "The Combined Influence of Dietary Flaxseed Variety, Level, Form, and Storage Conditions on Egg Production and Composition among Vitamin E- Supplemented Hens." Poult Sci 75, no. 10 (1996): 1221-6.
Schingoethe, D. J., H. H. Voelker, G. L. Beardsley, and J. G. Parsons. "Rumen Volatile Fatty Acids and Milk Composition from Cows Fed Hay, Haylage, or Urea-Treated Corn Silage." J Dairy Sci 59, no. 5 (1976): 894-901.
Scollan, N. D., N. J. Choi, E. Kurt, A. V. Fisher, M. Enser, and J. D. Wood. "Manipulating the Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle and Adipose Tissue in Beef Cattle." Br J Nutr 85, no. 1 (2001): 115-24.
Simopoulos, A. P., and N. Salem, Jr. "N-3 Fatty Acids in Eggs from Range-Fed Greek Chickens [Letter]." N Engl J Med 321, no. 20 (1989): 1412.
Soita, H. W., J. A. Meier, M. Fehr, P. Yu, D. A. Christensen, J. J. McKinon, and A. F. Mustafa. "Effects of Flaxseed Supplementation on Milk Production, Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Nutrient Utilization by Lactating Dairy Cows." Arch Tierernahr 57, no. 2 (2003): 107-16.
Tolan, A., J. Robertson, C. R. Orton, M. J. Head, A. A. Christie, and B. A. Millburn. "Studies on the Composition of Food. 5. The Chemical Composition of Eggs Produced under Battery, Deep Litter and Free Range Conditions." Br J Nutr 31, no. 2 (1974): 185-200.

Valeille, K., J. Ferezou, et al. (2006). "The natural concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11, in milk fat has antiatherogenic effects in hyperlipidemic hamsters." J Nutr 136(5): 1305-1310. Read summary.

Wachira, A. M., L. A. Sinclair, R. G. Wilkinson, M. Enser, J. D. Wood, and A. V. Fisher. "Effects of Dietary Fat Source and Breed on the Carcass Composition, N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid [omega-3] and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Sheep Meat and Adipose Tissue." Br J Nutr 88, no. 6 (2002): 697-709.
Ward, A. T., K. M. Wittenberg, H. M. Froebe, R. Przybylski, and L. Malcolmson. "Fresh Forage and Solin Supplementation on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels in Plasma and Milk." J Dairy Sci 86, no. 5 (2003): 1742-50.
Weill, P., B. Schmitt, G. Chesneau, N. Daniel, F. Safraou, and P. Legrand. "Effects of Introducing Linseed in Livestock Diet on Blood Fatty Acid Composition of Consumers of Animal Products." Ann Nutr Metab 46, no. 5 (2002): 182-91.
White, S. L., J. A. Bertrand, M. R. Wade, S. P. Washburn, J. T. Green, Jr., and T. C. Jenkins. "Comparison of Fatty Acid Content of Milk from Jersey and Holstein Cows Consuming Pasture or a Total Mixed Ration." J Dairy Sci 84, no. 10 (2001): 2295-301.
Wood, J. D., and M. Enser. "Factors Influencing Fatty Acids in Meat and the Role of Antioxidants in Improving Meat Quality." Br J Nutr 78 Suppl 1 (1997): S49-60.

Wood, J. D., M. Enser, A. V. Fisher, G. R. Nute, R. I. Richardson, and P. R. Sheard. "Manipulating Meat Quality and Composition ." Proc Nutr Soc 58, no. 2 (1999): 363-70.

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2) Health benefits of diets with a low ratio of Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids

Aguilera, C. M., M. C. Ramirez-Tortosa, M. D. Mesa, C. L. Ramirez-Tortosa, and A. Gil. "Sunflower, Virgin-Olive and Fish Oils Differentially Affect the Progression of Aortic Lesions in Rabbits with Experimental Atherosclerosis." Atherosclerosis 162, no. 2 (2002): 335-44.
Bagga, D., K. H. Anders, H. J. Wang, and J. A. Glaspy. "Long-Chain omega-3 to omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios in Breast Adipose Tissue from Women with and without Breast Cancer." Nutr Cancer 42, no. 2 (2002): 180-5.
Bernard-Gallon, D. J., C. Vissac-Sabatier, D. Antoine-Vincent, P. G. Rio, J. C. Maurizis, P. Fustier, and Y. J. Bignon. "Differential Effects of omega--3 and omega--6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Brca1 and Brca2 Gene Expression in Breast Cell Lines." Br J Nutr 87, no. 4 (2002): 281-9.
Black, H. S., J. I. Thornby, J. Gerguis, and W. Lenger. "Influence of Dietary Omega-6, -3 Fatty Acid Sources on the Initiation and Promotion Stages of Photocarcinogenesis." Photochem Photobiol 56, no. 2 (1992): 195-9.
Broughton, K. S., and J. W. Wade. "Total Fat and (omega-3):(omega-6) Fat Ratios Influence Eicosanoid Production in Mice." J Nutr 132, no. 1 (2002): 88-94.
Chalon, S., S. Delion-Vancassel, C. Belzung, D. Guilloteau, A. M. Leguisquet, J. C. Besnard, and G. Durand. "Dietary Fish Oil Affects Monoaminergic Neurotransmission and Behavior in Rats." J Nutr 128, no. 12 (1998): 2512-9.
Hakim, I. A., R. B. Harris, and C. Ritenbaugh. "Fat Intake and Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin." Nutr Cancer 36, no. 2 (2000): 155-62.
Hornstra, G. "Essential Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates." Am J Clin Nutr 71, no. 5 Suppl (2000): 1262S-9S.
Innis, S. M. "The Role of Dietary N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acids in the Developing Brain." Dev Neurosci 22, no. 5-6 (2000): 474-80.
Jakovljevic, J., M. S. Touillaud, M. L. Bondy, S. E. Singletary, P. C. Pillow, and S. Chang. "Dietary Intake of Selected Fatty Acids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids and Estrogen Receptor Status in Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients." Breast Cancer Res Treat 75, no. 1 (2002): 5-14.
Kalmijn, S., E. J. Feskens, L. J. Launer, and D. Kromhout. "Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Antioxidants, and Cognitive Function in Very Old Men." Am J Epidemiol 145, no. 1 (1997): 33-41.
Kettler, D. B. "Can Manipulation of the Ratios of Essential Fatty Acids Slow the Rapid Rate of Postmenopausal Bone Loss?" Altern Med Rev 6, no. 1 (2001): 61-77.
Klein, V., V. Chajes, E. Germain, G. Schulgen, M. Pinault, D. Malvy, T. Lefrancq, A. Fignon, O. Le Floch, C. Lhuillery, and P. Bougnoux. "Low Alpha-Linolenic Acid Content of Adipose Breast Tissue Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Breast Cancer." Eur J Cancer 36, no. 3 (2000): 335-40.
Maillard, V., P. Bougnoux, P. Ferrari, M. L. Jourdan, M. Pinault, F. Lavillonniere, G. Body, O. Le Floch, and V. Chajes. "Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Breast Adipose Tissue and Relative Risk of Breast Cancer in a Case-Control Study in Tours, France." Int J Cancer 98, no. 1 (2002): 78-83.
Massiera, F;  Barbry, P; Guesnet, P; Joly, A; Luquet, S; Brest,, CM; Mohsen-Kanson, T; Amri, E and G. Ailhaud. A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations. Journal of Lipid Research. August 2010. Volume 51, pages 2352-2361.
Meterissian, S., M. Kontogiannea, H. Murty, and A. Gupta. "Omega-6 Fatty Acids Can Inhibit Fas-Mediated Apoptosis in a Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line: A Potential Mechanism for Escape from Immune Surveillance." Int J Surg Investig 2, no. 4 (2000): 253-7.
Sauer, L. A., and R. T. Dauchy. "The Effect of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids on 3h-Thymidine Incorporation in Hepatoma 7288ctc Perfused in Situ." Br J Cancer 66, no. 2 (1992): 297-303.
Simopoulos, A. P. "The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids." Biomed Pharmacother 56, no. 8 (2002): 365-79.
Yamada, N., T. Takita, M. Wada, Y. Kannke, and S. Innami. "Effects of Dietary Omega-3/omega-6- and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid/Saturated Fatty Acid Ratios on Platelet Aggregation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 42, no. 5 (1996): 423-34.
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3) Vitamin content of products from pasture-raised and confinement-raised animals

Allen, W. M., R. Bradley, K. Swannack, C. R. Barton, and R. Tyler. "Loss of Vitamin E in Stored Cereals in Relation to a Myopathy of Yearling Cattle." Vet Rec 94, no. 16 (1974): 373-5.

Barnouin, J., I. Aimo, J. P. Chacornac, M. Chassagne, B. Faye, and F. Lescourret. Nutritional Factors and Mammary Inflammatory Infection in the Dairy Cow. Ecopathological Approach During the Peripartum Period." Vet Res 25, no. 2-3 (1994): 218-22.

Booth, A., M. Reid, and T. Clark. "Hypovitaminosis A in Feedlot Cattle." J Am Vet Med Assoc 190, no. 10 (1987): 1305-8.

Christian, M. P., C. Grainger, B. J. Sutherland, J. J. Mayes, M. C. Hannah, and B. Kefford. "Managing Diet Quality for Cheddar Cheese Manufacturing Milk. 2. Pasture V. Grain Supplements." J Dairy Res 66, no. 3 (1999): 357-63.

Flachowsky, G., B. Heidemann, M. Schlenzig, H. Wilk, and A. Henning. "Factors Influencing the Vitamin A Concentration in the Liver of Cattle." Z Ernahrungswiss 32, no. 1 (1993): 21-37.

Griffiths, J. R. "The Nutritional Assessment of Pasture." Vet Rec 88, no. 6 (1971): 142-4.

Hakkarainen, J., B. Pehrson, and J. Tyopponen. "Blood Vitamin E, Selenium and Glutathione Peroxidase Concentrations in Heifers Fed Either on Grass or on Winter Feed." Zentralbl Veterinarmed [A] 34, no. 7 (1987): 508-14.

Havenstein, G. B., P. R. Ferket, S. E. Scheideler, and B. T. Larson. "Growth, Livability, and Feed Conversion of 1957 Vs 1991 Broilers When Fed "Typical" 1957 and 1991 Broiler Diets." Poult Sci 73, no. 12 (1994): 1785-94.

Hidiroglou, M., T. R. Batra, and G. L. Roy. "Changes in Plasma Alpha-Tocopherol and Selenium of Gestating Cows Fed Hay or Silage." J Dairy Sci 77, no. 1 (1994): 190-5.

Hidiroglou, M., J. R. Lessard, and J. M. Wauthy. "Blood Serum Tocopherol Levels in Calves Born from Cows Winter Fed Hay or Grass Silage." Can J Comp Med 42, no. 1 (1978): 128-31.

Hidiroglou, M., J. M. Wauthy, and J. E. Proulx. "Vitamin E Activity of Stored Forages and Incidence of Myopathy in Calves." Ann Rech Vet 7, no. 2 (1976): 185-94.

Ingr, I., B. Suchanek, J. Golda, and B. Jankova. "Vitamin A and Carotene in Milk from Dairy Cows on Hay and Other Types of Diet." Vet Med (Praha) 17, no. 3 (1972): 133-40.

Lanari, M.C. M. Brewster, A. Yang, R.K. Tume. "Pasture and Grain Finishing Affect the Color Stability of Beef." J. of Food Science 67, no. 7 (2002).

Leaver, J. D. "Milk Production from Grazed Temperate Grassland." J Dairy Res 52, no. 2 (1985): 313-44.

Leonhardt, M., S. Gebert, and C. Wenk. "Vitamin E Content of Different Animal Products: Influence of Animal Nutrition." Z Ernahrungswiss 36, no. 1 (1997): 23-7.

Influence of pasture or grain-based diets supplemented with vitamin E on antioxidant/oxidative balance of Argentine beef,” Meat Science 70 (2005) 35-44.

Iwanska, S., and D. Strusinska. "The Effect of Beta-Carotene and Vitamins a, D3 and E on Some Reproductive Parameters in Cows." Acta Vet Hung 45, no. 1 (1997): 95-107.

Dvorak, M., I. Herzig, B. Vojtisek, and M. Toulova. "[Carotene and Fluorometrically Determined Vitamin ALevels in the Blood Plasma of Cows in Relation to Gravidity and Type of Feeding]." Vet Med (Praha) 23, no. 10 (1978): 577-85.

Lopez-Bote, C.J., R.Sanz Arias, A.I. Rey, A. Castano, B. Isabel, J. Thos. "Effect of Free-Range Feeding on N-3 Fatty Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol Content and Oxidative Stability of Eggs." Animal Feed Science and Technology 72 (1998): 33-40.

Machin, J. H., and F. R. Spratling. "The Economic Loss Caused by Hypovitaminosis-A in Fattening Cattle." Vet Rec 85, no. 6 (1969): 178-9.

McGeachin, R. B., and C. A. Bailey. "Determination of Carotenoid Pigments, Retinol, and Alpha-Tocopherol in Feeds, Tissues, and Blood Serum by Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography." Poult Sci 74, no. 2 (1995): 407-11.

Morris, S.T. et al. "Short-Term Grain Feeding and Its Effect on Carcass and Meat Quality." Proceedings of the New Zealand Grasslands Association 1997 57 (1997).

Parra, M. D., B. E. Martinez de Morentin, et al. (2007). "Acute calcium assimilation from fresh or pasteurized yoghurt depending on the lactose digestibility status." J Am Coll Nutr 26(3): 288-294. Read summary.

Prache, S., A. Priolo, and P. Grolier. "Persistence of Carotenoid Pigments in the Blood of Concentrate-Finished Grazing Sheep: Its Significance for the Traceability of Grass-Feeding." J Anim Sci 81, no. 2 (2003): 360-7.

Rakes, A. H., M. P. Owens, J. H. Britt, and L. W. Whitlow. "Effects of Adding Beta-Carotene to Rations of Lactating Cows Consuming Different Forages." J Dairy Sci 68, no. 7 (1985): 1732-7.

Rey, A. I., and C. J. Lopez-Bote. "Effect of Dietary Copper and Vitamin E Supplementation, and Extensive Feeding with Acorn and Grass on Longissimus Muscle Composition and Susceptibility to Oxidation in Iberian Pigs." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 85, no. 9-10 (2001): 281-92.

Scheideler, S. E., and G. W. Froning. "The Combined Influence of Dietary Flaxseed Variety, Level, Form, and Storage Conditions on Egg Production and Composition among Vitamin E- Supplemented Hens." Poult Sci 75, no. 10 (1996): 1221-6.

Thafvelin, B., and H. E. Oksanen. "Vitamin E and Linolenic Acid Content of Hay as Related to Different Drying Conditions." J Dairy Sci 49, no. 3 (1966): 282-6.

Turner, K. E., K. E. McClure, W. P. Weiss, R. J. Borton, and J. G. Foster. "Alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) Concentrations and Case Life of Lamb Muscle as Influenced by Concentrate or Pasture Finishing." J Anim Sci 80, no. 10 (2002): 2513-21.

Wood, J. D., and M. Enser. "Factors Influencing Fatty Acids in Meat and the Role of Antioxidants in Improving Meat Quality." Br J Nutr 78 Suppl 1 (1997): S49-60.

Rey, A. I., and C. J. Lopez-Bote. "Effect of Dietary Copper and Vitamin E Supplementation, and Extensive Feeding with Acorn and Grass on Longissimus Muscle Composition and Susceptibility to Oxidation in Iberian Pigs." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 85, no. 9-10 (2001): 281-92.

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4) Environmental consequences of grass-based versus confinement-based animal production

Beets, P. N., G. R. Oliver, and P. W. Clinton. "Soil Carbon Protection in Podocarp/Hardwood Forest, and Effects of Conversion to Pasture and Exotic Pine Forest." Environ Pollut 116 Suppl 1 (2002): S63-73.
Bolan, N. S., M. A. Khan, J. Donaldson, D. C. Adriano, and C. Matthew. "Distribution and Bioavailability of Copper in Farm Effluent." Sci Total Environ 309, no. 1-3 (2003): 225-36.
Bouchard, V., M. Tessier, F. Digaire, J. P. Vivier, L. Valery, J. C. Gloaguen, and J. C. Lefeuvre. "Sheep Grazing as Management Tool in Western European Saltmarshes." C R Biol 326 Suppl 1 (2003): S148-57.
Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. B. riggs, J. M. Blair, and E. M. Steinauer. "Modulation of Diversity by Grazing and Mowing in Native Tallgrass Prairie." Science 280, no. 5364 (1998): 745-7.
DeRamus, H. A., T. C. Clement, D. D. Giampola, and P. C. Dickison. "Methane Emissions of Beef Cattle on Forages: Efficiency of Grazing Management Systems." J Environ Qual 32, no. 1 (2003): 269-77. Read summary...
Garnsworthy, P.C., The environmental impact of fertility in dairy cows: a modeling approach to predict methane and ammonia emissions, Animal Feed Science & Technology, 2004. 112: 211-223.
Hao, X., C. Chang, F. J. Larney, and G. R. Travis. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions During Cattle Feedlot Manure Composting." J Environ Qual 30, no. 2 (2001): 376-86.
Harper, L. A., O. T. Denmead, J. R. Freney, and F. M. Byers. "Direct Measurements of Methane Emissions from Grazing and Feedlot Cattle." J Anim Sci 77, no. 6 (1999): 1392-401.
Hartung, J. "Nature and Amount of Aerial Pollutants from Livestock Buildings." Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 105, no. 6 (1998): 213-6.
Herpin, U., C. C. Cerri, M. Conceicao Santana Carvalho, B. Markert, J. Enzweiler, K. Friese, and G. Breulmann. "Biogeochemical Dynamics Following Land Use Change from Forest to Pasture in a Humid Tropical Area (Rondjnia, Brazil): A Multi-Element Approach by Means of Xrf-Spectroscopy." Sci Total Environ 286, no. 1-3 (2002): 97-109.
Horrigan, L., R. S. Lawrence, and P. Walker. "How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture." Environ Health Perspect 110, no. 5 (2002): 445-56. Full Text.
Jackson, R. B., J. L. Banner, E. G. Jobbagy, W. T. Pockman, and D. H. Wall. "Ecosystem Carbon Loss with Woody Plant Invasion of Grasslands." Nature 418, no. 6898 (2002): 623-6.
Jackson, B. P., P. M. Bertsch, M. L. Cabrera, J. J. Camberato, J. C. Seaman, and C. W. Wood. "Trace Element Speciation in Poultry Litter." J Environ Qual 32, no. 2 (2003): 535-40.
Lal, R. "Carbon Sequestration in Dryland Ecosystems." Environ Manage (2003).
Luoto, M., S. Rekolainen, J. Aakkula, and J. Pykala. "Loss of Plant Species Richness and Habitat Connectivity in Grasslands Associated with Agricultural Change in Finland." Ambio 32, no. 7 (2003): 447-52.
Moore, J. L., S. M. Howden, G. M. McKeon, J. O. Carter, and J. C. Scanlan. "The Dynamics of Grazed Woodlands in Southwest Queensland, Australia and Their Effect on Greenhouse Gas Emissions." Environ Int 27, no. 2-3 (2001): 147-53.
Reeder, J. D., and G. E. Schuman. "Influence of Livestock Grazing on C Sequestration in Semi-Arid Mixed-Grass and Short-Grass Rangelands." Environ Pollut 116, no. 3 (2002): 457-63.
Schuma, G. E., H. H. Janzen, and J. E. Herrick. "Soil Carbon Dynamics and Potential Carbon Sequestration by Rangelands." Environ Pollut 116, no. 3 (2002): 391-6.
Smith, K. E., M. Green, G. O. Thomas, and K. C. Jones. "Behavior of Sewage Sludge-Derived Pahs on Pasture." Environ Sci Technol 35, no. 11 (2001): 2141-50.
Soder, K. J., and C. A. Rotz. "Economic and Environmental Impact of Four Levels of Concentrate Supplementation in Grazing Dairy Herds." J Dairy Sci 84, no. 11 (2001): 2560-72.
Strojan, S. T., and C. J. Phillips. "The Detection and Avoidance of Lead-Contaminated Herbage by Dairy Cows." J Dairy Sci 85, no. 11 (2002): 3045-53.
Su, Y., and H. Zhao. "Influences of Grazing and Exclosure on Carbon Sequestration in Degraded Sandy Grassland, Inner Mongolia, North China." Huan Jing Ke Xue 24, no. 4 (2003): 23-8.
Taddese, G., M. A. Saleem, A. Astatke, and W. Ayaleneh. "Effect of Grazing on Plant Attributes and Hydrological Properties in the Sloping Lands of the East African Highlands." Environ Manage 30, no. 3 (2002): 406-17.

Tyrchniewicz Consulting. "The Science of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
and Grazing Management Strategies: an Investigative/Awareness Report", March 31, 2006. E-mail: atyrch@mts.net

Wang, Y., B. Ji, Y. Huang, and Y. Hu. "[Effects of Grazing and Cultivating on Emission of Nitrous Oxide, Carbon Dioxide and Uptake of Methane from Grasslands]." Huan Jing Ke Xue 22, no. 6 (2001): 7-13.
White, S. L., R. E. Sheffield, S. P. Washburn, L. D. King, and J. T. Green, Jr. "Spatial and Time Distribution of Dairy Cattle Excreta in an Intensive Pasture System." J Environ Qual 30, no. 6 (2001): 2180-7.
Williams, C. M., J. C. Barker, and J. T. Sims. "Management and Utilization of Poultry Wastes." Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 162 (1999): 105-57.

Wing, S., and S. Wolf. "Intensive Livestock Operations, Health, and Quality of Life among Eastern North Carolina Residents." Environ Health Perspect 108, no. 3 (2000): 233-8.

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5) Animal health and welfare in grass-based and confinement-based animal production

al Homidan, A., J. F. Robertson, and A. M. Petchey. "Effect of Environmental Factors on Ammonia and Dust Production and Broiler Performance." Br Poult Sci 39 Suppl (1998): S9-10.
Appleby, M. C., A. W. Walker, C. J. Nicol, A. C. Lindberg, R. Freire, B. O. Hughes, and H. A. Elson. "Development of Furnished Cages for Laying Hens." Br Poult Sci 43, no. 4 (2002): 489-500.
Bottje, W. G., S. Wang, F. J. Kelly, C. Dunster, A. Williams, and I. Mudway. "Antioxidant Defenses in Lung Lining Fluid of Broilers: Impact of Poor Ventilation Conditions." Poult Sci 77, no. 4 (1998): 516-22.
Bracke, M. B., J. H. Metz, B. M. Spruijt, and W. G. Schouten. "Decision Support System for Overall Welfare Assessment in Pregnant Sows B: Validation by Expert Opinion." J Anim Sci 80, no. 7 (2002): 1835-45.
Cheng, K. J., T. A. McAllister, J. D. Popp, A. N. Hristov, Z. Mir, and H. T. Shin. "A Review of Bloat in Feedlot Cattle [Published Erratum Appears in J Anim Sci 1998 Jul;76(7):1997]." J Anim Sci 76, no. 1 (1998): 299-308.
Chew, B. P., L. L. Hollen, J. K. Hillers, and M. L. Herlugson. "Relationship between Vitamin a and Beta-Carotene in Blood Plasma and Milk and Mastitis in Holsteins." J Dairy Sci 65, no. 11 (1982): 2111-8.
Cravener, T. L., W. B. Roush, and M. M. Mashaly. "Broiler Production under Varying Population Densities." Poult Sci 71, no. 3 (1992): 427-33.
Goldberg, J. J., E. E. Wildman, J. W. Pankey, J. R. Kunkel, D. B. Howard, and B. M. Murphy. "The Influence of Intensively Managed Rotational Grazing, Traditional Continuous Grazing, and Confinement Housing on Bulk Tank Milk Quality and Udder Health." J Dairy Sci 75, no. 1 (1992): 96-104.
Havenstein, G. B., P. R. Ferket, S. E. Scheideler, and B. T. Larson. "Growth, Livability, and Feed Conversion of 1957 Vs 1991 Broilers When Fed "Typical" 1957 and 1991 Broiler Diets." Poult Sci 73, no. 12 (1994): 1785-94.
Knowles, T. G., and L. J. Wilkins. "The Problem of Broken Bones During the Handling of Laying Hens--a Review." Poult Sci 77, no. 12 (1998): 1798-802.
Marahrens, M., I. Von Richthofen, S. Schmeiduch, and J. Hartung. "Special Problems of Long-Distance Road Transports of Cattle." Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 110, no. 3 (2003): 120-5.
Baxter, M. R. "The Welfare Problems of Laying Hens in Battery Cages." Vet Rec 134, no. 24 (1994): 614-9.
Haggard, D. L., R. J. Farnsworth, and J. A. Springer. "Subclinical Mastitis of Beef Cows." J Am Vet Med Assoc 182, no. 6 (1983): 604-6.
Hathaway, S. C. "Intensive (Pasture) Beef Cattle Operations: The Perspective of New Zealand." Rev Sci Tech 16, no. 2 (1997): 382-90.
Hurnik, J. F., and N. J. Lewis. "Body Surface Area, a Reference for Space Allowance in Confinement." Poult Sci 70, no. 2 (1991): 412-5.
Herenda, D., and O. Jakel. "Poultry Abattoir Survey of Carcass Condemnation for Standard, Vegetarian, and Free Range Chickens." Can Vet J 35, no. 5 (1994): 293-6.
Nagaraja, T. G., and M. M. Chengappa. "Liver Abscesses in Feedlot Cattle: A Review." J Anim Sci 76, no. 1 (1998): 287-98.
Nagaraja, T. G., M. L. Galyean, and N. A. Cole. "Nutrition and Disease." Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 14, no. 2 (1998): 257-77.
Owens, F. N., D. S. Secrist, W. J. Hill, and D. R. Gill. "Acidosis in Cattle: A Review." J Anim Sci 76, no. 1 (1998): 275-86.
Phy, T. S., and F. D. Provenza. "Sheep Fed Grain Prefer Foods and Solutions That Attenuate Acidosis." J Anim Sci 76, no. 4 (1998): 954-60.
Roberts, J. L. "The Prevalence and Economic Significance of Liver Disorders and Contamination in Grain-Fed and Grass-Fed Cattle." Aust Vet J 59, no. 5 (1982): 129-32.
Tokarnia, C. H., J. Dobereiner, P. V. Peixoto, and S. S. Moraes. "Outbreak of Copper Poisoning in Cattle Fed Poultry Litter." Vet Hum Toxicol 42, no. 2 (2000): 92-5.
Waage, S., S. Sviland, and S. A. Odegaard. "Identification of Risk Factors for Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Heifers." J Dairy Sci 81, no. 5 (1998): 1275-84.
Washburn, S. P., S. L. White, J. T. Green, Jr., and G. A. Benson. "Reproduction, Mastitis, and Body Condition of Seasonally Calved Holstein and Jersey Cows in Confinement or Pasture Systems." J Dairy Sci 85, no. 1 (2002): 105-11.
Wathes, C. M., M. R. Holden, R. W. Sneath, R. P. White, and V. R. Phillips. "Concentrations and Emission Rates of Aerial Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Dust and Endotoxin in Broiler and Layer Houses." Br Poult Sci 38, no. 1 (1997): 14-28.
White, S. L., G. A. Benson, S. P. Washburn, and J. T. Green, Jr. "Milk Production and Economic Measures in Confinement or Pasture Systems Using Seasonally Calved Holstein and Jersey Cows." J Dairy Sci 85, no. 1 (2002): 95-104.

Wilson, J. R., E. E. Bartley, H. D. Anthony, B. E. Brent, D. A. Sapienza, T. E. Chapman, A. D. Dayton, R. J. Milleret, R. A. Frey, and R. M. Meyer. "Analyses of Rumen Fluid from "Sudden Death";, Lactic Acidotic and Healthy Cattle Fed High Concentrate Ration." J Anim Sci 41, no. 5 (1975): 1249-55.

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6) Questionable ingredients in feedlot diets

Rankins, D. L., Jr. "The Importance of by-Products to the U.S. Beef Industry." Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 18, no. 2 (2002): 207-11, v. "The use of by-products as nutrient sources for beef cattle will continue to be driven by economics. As landfill prices continue to escalate, more by-product will become economically viable as cattle feed. These considerations will be counter-balanced by safety concerns. American consumers are becoming increasingly concerned with the production aspects of their food. The environmental concerns associated with additional landfills will have to be balanced against which by-products consumers will accept in the production of the beef that they consume. These will most assuredly heighten over the coming years."
Johnson, J. C., Jr., and W. C. McCormick. "Ensiled Diet Containing Processed Municipal Garbage and Sorghum Forage for Heifers." J Dairy Sci 58, no. 11 (1975): 1672-6.
Johnson, J. C., Jr. "Aerobic Digested Municipal Garbage as a Feedstuff for Cattle." J of Animal Science 41, no. 5 (1975): 1487-95.
Gilka, J., J. Bartos, V. Gajduskova, M. Malikova, J. Masek, J. Sic, and Z. Matyas. "Foreign Substances in the Meat and Organs of Bulls Fed on a Diet of Swine and Poultry Fecal Waste." Vet Med (Praha) 26, no. 11 (1981): 651-60.
Loerch, S. C. "Efficacy of Plastic Pot Scrubbers as a Replacement for Roughage in High- Concentrate Cattle Diets." J Anim Sci 69, no. 6 (1991): 2321-8.
Manjeli, Y., A. Teguia, J. Djoukam, and J. Tchoumboue. "Effects of Feeding Cattle Manure on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Large White Pigs." Trop Anim Health Prod 28, no. 4 (1996): 307-11.
Rankins, D. L., Jr., M. H. Poore, D. J. Capucille, and G. M. Rogers. "Recycled Poultry Bedding as Cattle Feed." Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 18, no. 2 (2002): 253-66.
Tokarnia, C. H., J. Dobereiner, P. V. Peixoto, and S. S. Moraes. "Outbreak of Copper Poisoning in Cattle Fed Poultry Litter." Vet Hum Toxicol 42, no. 2 (2000): 92-5.
Williams, C. M., J. C. Barker, and J. T. Sims. "Management and Utilization of Poultry Wastes." Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 162 (1999): 105-57.
Bastianello, S. S., N. Fourie, L. Prozesky, P. W. Nel, and T. S. Kellermann. "Cardiomyopathy of Ruminants Induced by the Litter of Poultry Fed on Rations Containing the Ionophore Antibiotic, Maduramicin. Ii. Macropathology and Histopathology." Onderstepoort J Vet Res 62, no. 1 (1995): 5-18.
Cooke, J. A., and J. P. Fontenot. "Utilization of Phosphorus and Certain Other Minerals from Swine Waste and Broiler Litter." J Anim Sci 68, no. 9 (1990): 2852-63.
Davis, J. R., J. K. Apple, D. H. Hellwig, E. B. Kegley, and F. W. Pohlman. "The Effects of Feeding Broiler Litter on Microbial Contamination of Beef Carcasses." Bioresour Technol 84, no. 2 (2002): 191-6.
Haapapuro, E. R., N. D. Barnard, and M. Simon. "Review--Animal Waste Used as Livestock Feed: Dangers to Human Health." Prev Med 26, no. 5 Pt 1 (1997): 599-602.
Messer, J. W., J. Lovett, G. K. Murthy, A. J. Wehby, M. L. Schafer, and R. B. Read, Jr. "An Assessment of Some Public Health Problems Resulting from Feeding Poultry Litter to Animals. Microbiological and Chemical Parameters." Poult Sci 50, no. 3 (1971): 874-81.
Tokarnia, C. H., J. Dobereiner, P. V. Peixoto, and S. S. Moraes. "Outbreak of Copper Poisoning in Cattle Fed Poultry Litter." Vet Hum Toxicol 42, no. 2 (2000): 92-5.
Furr, A. K., D. R. Mertens, W. H. Gutenmann, C. A. Bache, and D. J. Lisk. "Fate of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Metals, and Other Elements in Papers Fed to Lactating Cows." J Agric Food Chem 22, no. 6 (1974): 954-9.
Mertens, D. R., J. R. Campbell, F. A. Martz, and E. S. Hilderbrand. "Lactational and Ruminal Response of Dairy Cows to Ten and Twenty Percent Dietary Newspaper." J Dairy Sci 54, no. 5 (1971): 667-72.
Dinius, D.A. "Sawdust as a Diluent for Adapting Cattle to Concentrate Diet." J Anim Sci 41, no. 4 (1975): 1170-79.
Wolf, B. W., L. L. Berger, and G. C. Fahey, Jr. "Effects of Feeding a Return Chewing Gum/Packaging Material Mixture on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Cattle." J Anim Sci 74, no. 11 (1996): 2559-65.
Mantysaari, P. E., C. J. Sniffen, T. V. Muscato, J. M. Lynch, and D. M. Barbano. "Performance of Cows in Early Lactation Fed Isonitrogenous Diets Containing Soybean Meal or Animal by-Product Meals." J Dairy Sci 72, no. 11 (1989): 2958-67. [In this 1989 study, animal by-products given to the milk cows included meat and bone meal, blood, chicken, and feathers.]
Becker, B. A., J. R. Campbell, and F. A. Martz. "Paper and Whey as a Feedstuff for Ruminants." J Dairy Sci 58, no. 11 (1975): 1677-81.
Rankins, D. L., Jr., M. H. Poore, D. J. Capucille, and G. M. Rogers. "Recycled Poultry Bedding as Cattle Feed." Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 18, no. 2 (2002): 253-66.
Tinnimit, P., Y. Yu, K. McGuffey, and J. W. Thomas. "Dried Animal Waste as a Protein Supplement for Sheep." J Anim Sci 35, no. 2 (1972): 431-5.
Beauchamp, C. J., R. Boulanger, J. Matte, and G. Saint-Laurent. "Examination of the Contaminants and Performance of Animals Fed and Bedded Using De-Inking Paper Sludge." Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42, no. 4 (2002): 523-8.
Clark, J. H., M. R. Murphy, and B. A. Crooker. "Supplying the Protein Needs of Dairy Cattle from by-Product Feeds." J Dairy Sci 70, no. 5 (1987): 1092-109.
Adam, D. "Controversial Animal Feed Builds Concrete Career in Construction." Nature 418, no. 6900 (2002): 807.
Loretti, A. P., E. M. Colodel, D. Driemeier, A. M. Correa, J. J. Bangel, Jr., and L. Ferreiro. "Neurological Disorder in Dairy Cattle Associated with Consumption of Beer Residues Contaminated with Aspergillus Clavatus." J Vet Diagn Invest 15, no. 2 (2003): 123-32.
Loest, C. A., E. C. Titgemeyer, J. S. Drouillard, C. M. Coetzer, R. D. Hunter, D. J. Bindel, and B. D. Lambert. "Supplemental Betaine and Peroxide-Treated Feather Meal for Finishing Cattle." J Anim Sci 80, no. 9 (2002): 2234-40.
van Dijk, A. J. "[Spray-Dried Plasma in Diets for Weaned Piglets: Influence on Growth and Underlying Mechanisms]." Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 127, no. 17 (2002): 520-3.
Moore, J. A., M. H. Poore, and J. M. Luginbuhl. "By-Product Feeds for Meat Goats: Effects on Digestibility, Ruminal Environment, and Carcass Characteristics." J Anim Sci 80, no. 7 (2002): 1752-8.
Shelton, J. L., M. D. Hemann, R. M. Strode, G. L. Brashear, M. Ellis, F. K. McKeith, T. D. Bidner, and L. L. Southern. "Effect of Different Protein Sources on Growth and Carcass Traits in Growing-Finishing Pigs." J Anim Sci 79, no. 9 (2001): 2428-35. [One of those protein sources is chicken manure.]
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. "Nutritional Evaluation of Poultry by-Product Meal as a Protein Source for Ruminants: Small Intestinal Amino Acid Flow and Disappearance in Steers." J Anim Sci 77, no. 4 (1999): 1000-7.
King'ori, A. M., J. K. Tuitoek, and H. K. Muiruri. "Comparison of Fermented Dried Blood Meal and Cooked Dried Blood Meal as Protein Supplements for Growing Pigs." Trop Anim Health Prod 30, no. 3 (1998): 191-6.
Klemesrud, M. J., T. J. Klopfenstein, and A. J. Lewis. "Complementary Responses between Feather Meal and Poultry by-Product Meal with or without Ruminally Protected Methionine and Lysine in Growing Calves." J Anim Sci 76, no. 7 (1998): 1970-5.
Aoyagi, S., D. H. Baker, and K. J. Wedekind. "Estimates of Copper Bioavailability from Liver of Different Animal Species and from Feed Ingredients Derived from Plants and Animals." Poult Sci 72, no. 9 (1993): 1746-55.
Hegedus, M., J. Bokori, G. Tolgyesi, and E. Andrasofszky. "Chemical Composition and Vitamin B Content of Abattoir [slaughterhouse] by-Product Meals." Acta Vet Hung 37, no. 1-2 (1989): 17-25.
Wolf, B. W., L. L. Berger, H. S. Hussein, and G. C. Fahey, Jr. "Effects of a Return Chewing Gum/Packaging Material Mixture on in Situ Disappearance and on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, and Ruminal Characteristics of Growing Steers." J Anim Sci 77, no. 12 (1999): 3392-7.
Johnson, J. C., Jr., and W. C. McCormick. "Ensiled Diet Containing Processed Municipal Garbage and Sorghum Forage for Heifers." J Dairy Sci58, no. 11 (1975): 1672-6.
Hidiroglou, M., T. R. Batra, and G. L. Roy. "Changes in Plasma Alpha-Tocopherol and Selenium of Gestating Cows Fed Hay or Silage." J Dairy Sci 77, no. 1 (1994): 190-5.
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7) Consequences of the use of feed antibiotics, steroids, and other drugs in animal production

Aarestrup, F. M. "Association between Decreased Susceptibility to a New Antibiotic for Treatment of Human Diseases, Everninomicin (Sch 27899), and Resistance to an Antibiotic Used for Growth Promotion in Animals, Avilamycin." Microb Drug Resist 4, no. 2 (1998): 137-41.
Bastianello, S. S., N. Fourie, L. Prozesky, P. W. Nel, and T. S. Kellermann. "Cardiomyopathy of Ruminants Induced by the Litter of Poultry Fed on Rations Containing the Ionophore Antibiotic, Maduramicin. Ii. Macropathology and Histopathology." Onderstepoort J Vet Res 62, no. 1 (1995): 5-18.
Casewell, M., C. Friis, E. Marco, P. McMullin, and I. Phillips. "The European Ban on Growth-Promoting Antibiotics and Emerging Consequences for Human and Animal Health." J Antimicrob Chemother 52, no. 2 (2003): 159-61.
Cho, E., W. Y. Chen, et al. (2006). "Red meat intake and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women." Arch Intern Med 166(20): 2253-2259. Read summary.
Epstein, S. S. "The Chemical Jungle: Today's Beef Industry." Int J Health Serv 20, no. 2 (1990): 277-80.
Grady, Denise. "A Move to Limit Antibiotic Use in Animal Feed." The New York Times, March 8 1999, National Desk.
Graham, Jay P. et al, Public Health Reports, “Growth Promoting Antibiotics in Food Animal Production: An Economic Analysis.” 122:1, 2007.
Haapapuro, E. R., N. D. Barnard, and M. Simon. "Review--Animal Waste Used as Livestock Feed: Dangers to Human Health." Prev Med 26, no. 5 Pt 1 (1997): 599-602.
Hofacre, C. L., D. G. White, J. J. Maurer, C. Morales, C. Lobsinger, and C. Hudson. "Characterization of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Rendered Animal Products." Avian Dis 45, no. 4 (2001): 953-61.
Hogging It Link to the Executive Summary of the UCS report "Hogging It: Estimates of Antimicrobial Abuse in Livestock", January 2001
Langlois, B. E., K. A. Dawson, I. Leak, and D. K. Aaron. "Effect of Age and Housing Location on Antibiotic Resistance of Fecal Coliforms from Pigs in a Non-Antibiotic-Exposed Herd." Appl Environ Microbiol 54, no. 6 (1988): 1341-4.
Lenhart, S. W., and S. A. Olenchock. "Sources of Respiratory Insult in the Poultry Processing Industry." Am J Ind Med 6, no. 2 (1984): 89-96.
Moran, E. T., Jr., and R. J. Etches. "Finishing Broiler Toms Using an Estradiol 17 Beta Implant Together with a High Energy-Low Protein Final Feed." Poult Sci 62, no. 6 (1983): 1010-20.
Nagaraja, T. G., and M. M. Chengappa. "Liver Abscesses in Feedlot Cattle: A Review." J Anim Sci 76, no. 1 (1998): 287-98.
Ojeniyi, A. A. "Comparative Bacterial Drug Resistance in Modern Battery and Free-Range Poultry in a Tropical Environment." Vet Rec 117, no. 1 (1985): 11-2.
Owens, F. N., D. S. Secrist, W. J. Hill, and D. R. Gill. "Acidosis in Cattle: A Review." J Anim Sci 76, no. 1 (1998): 275-86.
Papadopoulou, C., D. Dimitriou, S. Levidiotou, H. Gessouli, A. Panagiou, S. Golegou, and G. Antoniades. "Bacterial Strains Isolated from Eggs and Their Resistance to Currently Used Antibiotics: Is There a Health Hazard for Consumers?" Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 20, no. 1 (1997): 35-40.
Platter, W. J., J. D. Tatum, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, and G. C. Smith. "Effects of Repetitive Use of Hormonal Implants on Beef Carcass Quality, Tenderness, and Consumer Ratings of Beef Palatability." J Anim Sci 81, no. 4 (2003): 984-96.
Willinghan, E. M., J. E. Sander, S. G. Thayer, and J. L. Wilson. "Investigation of Bacterial Resistance to Hatchery Disinfectants." Avian Dis 40, no. 3 (1996): 510-5.

White, M. E., B. J. Johnson, M. R. Hathaway, and W. R. Dayton. "Growth Factor Messenger Rna Levels in Muscle and Liver of Steroid-Implanted and Nonimplanted Steers." J Anim Sci 81, no. 4 (2003): 965-72.

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8) Worker health in animal confinement operations

Donham, K. J., D. Cumro, S. J. Reynolds, and J. A. Merchant. "Dose-Response Relationships between Occupational Aerosol Exposures and Cross-Shift Declines of Lung Function in Poultry Workers: Recommendations for Exposure Limits." J Occup Environ Med 42, no. 3 (2000): 260-9.
Donham, K., D. Cumro, and S. Reynolds. "Synergistic Effects of Dust and Ammonia on the Occupational Health Effects of Poultry Production Workers." J Agromedicine 8, no. 2 (2002): 57-76.
Iversen, M., S. Kirychuk, H. Drost, and L. Jacobson. "Human Health Effects of Dust Exposure in Animal Confinement Buildings." J Agric Saf Health 6, no. 4 (2000): 283-8.
Lenhart, S. W., and S. A. Olenchock. "Sources of Respiratory Insult in the Poultry Processing Industry." Am J Ind Med 6, no. 2 (1984): 89-96.
Nielsen, B. H., and N. O. Breum. "Exposure to Air Contaminants in Chicken Catching." Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 56, no. 8 (1995): 804-8.
Olson, D. K., and S. M. Bark. "Health Hazards Affecting the Animal Confinement Farm Worker." Aaohn J 44, no. 4 (1996): 198-204; quiz 05-6.
Reynolds, S. J., K. J. Donham, P. Whitten, J. A. Merchant, L. F. Burmeister, and W. J. Popendorf. "Longitudinal Evaluation of Dose-Response Relationships for Environmental Exposures and Pulmonary Function in Swine Production Workers." Am J Ind Med 29, no. 1 (1996): 33-40.
Reynolds, S. J., D. Parker, D. Vesley, D. Smith, and R. Woellner. "Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Study of Respiratory Disease in Turkey Farmers." Am J Ind Med 24, no. 6 (1993): 713-22.
Thedell, T. D., J. C. Mull, and S. A. Olenchock. "A Brief Report of Gram-Negative Bacterial Endotoxin Levels in Airborne and Settled Dusts in Animal Confinement Buildings." Am J Ind Med 1, no. 1 (1980): 3-7.
Von Essen, S., and K. Donham. "Illness and Injury in Animal Confinement Workers." Occup Med 14, no. 2 (1999): 337-50.
Wilkes, B., L. Stammerjohn, and N. Lalich. "Job Demands and Worker Health in Machine-Paced Poultry Inspection." Scand J Work Environ Health 7 Suppl 4 (1981): 12-9.
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9) Meat quality

Bowling, R. A. (1977). "Comparison of Forage-finished and grain-finished beef carcasses." J of Animal Science 45(2): 209-215.
Bowling, R. A. et al. (1978). "Production, carcass and palatability characteristics of steers produced by different management systems." J of Animal Science 46(2): 333-40.
Davis, G. W. (1981). "Effect of electrical stimulation on carcass quality and meat palatability of beef from forage and grain-finished steers." J of Animal Science 53(3): 651-57.
Bruce, H. L. and R. O. Ball (1990). "Postmortem interactions of muscle temperature, pH and extension on beef quality." J Anim Sci 68(12): 4167-75.
Eilers, J. D., J. D. Tatum, et al. (1996). "Modification of early-postmortem muscle pH and use of postmortem aging to improve beef tenderness." J Anim Sci 74(4): 790-8.
Gardner, B. A., H. G. Dolezal, et al. (1999). "Health of finishing steers: effects on performance, carcass traits, and meat tenderness." J Anim Sci 77(12): 3168-75.
George-Evins, C. D., J. A. Unruh, et al. (2004). "Influence of quality classification, aging period, blade tenderization, and endpoint cooking temperature on cooking characteristics and tenderness of beef gluteus medius steaks." J Anim Sci 82(6): 1863-7.
Harris, S. E., E. Huff-Lonergan, et al. (2001). "Antioxidant status affects color stability and tenderness of calcium chloride-injected beef." J Anim Sci 79(3): 666-77.
Huffman, K. L., M. F. Miller, et al. (1996). "Effect of beef tenderness on consumer satisfaction with steaks consumed in the home and restaurant." J Anim Sci 74(1): 91-7.
Kim, Y. S. and G. Fukomoto (1999). "Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Tenderness of Forage-Finished Beef."
King, D. A., M. E. Dikeman, et al. (2003). "Chilling and cooking rate effects on some myofibrillar determinants of tenderness of beef." J Anim Sci 81(6): 1473-81.
Lochner, J. V., R.G. Kauffman, B.B. Marsh (1980). "Early-Postmortem Cooling Rate and Beef Tenderness." Meat Science 4: 227-241.
May, S. G., H. G. Dolezal, et al. (1992). "Effect of days fed, carcass grade traits, and subcutaneous fat removal on postmortem muscle characteristics and beef palatability." J Anim Sci 70(2): 444-53.

Mercier, Y., P. Gatellier, M. Renerre (2004). "Lipid and protein oxidation in vitro, and antioxidant potential in meat from Charolais cows finished on pasture or mixed diet." Meat Science 66: 467-473.

Morris, S. T. et al. (1997). ""Short-term Grain Feeding and its Effect on Carcass and Meat Quality."" Proceedings of the New Zealand Grasslands Association 1997 57.
Parrish, F. C., Jr., R. E. Rust, et al. (1969). "Effect of postmortem aging time and temperature on beef muscle attributes." J Anim Sci 29(3): 398-403.
Platter, W. J., J. D. Tatum, et al. (2003). "Effects of repetitive use of hormonal implants on beef carcass quality, tenderness, and consumer ratings of beef palatability." J Anim Sci 81(4): 984-96.
Purchas, R. W., D. L. Burnham, et al. (2002). "Effects of growth potential and growth path on tenderness of beef longissimus muscle from bulls and steers." J Anim Sci 80(12): 3211-21.
Roeber, D. L., R. C. Cannell, et al. (2000). "Effects of a unique application of electrical stimulation on tenderness, color, and quality attributes of the beef longissimus muscle." J Anim Sci 78(6): 1504-9.
Scanga, J. A., K. E. Belk, et al. (2001). "Supranutritional oral supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium and the effects on beef tenderness." J Anim Sci 79(4): 912-8.
Schaake, S. L., G. C. Skelley, et al. (1993). "Carcass and meat sensory traits of steers finished on fescue and clover, summer forage, or for different periods in drylot." J Anim Sci 71(12): 3199-205.
Smith, G. C., T.R. Dutson et al (1976). "Fatness, Rate of Chilling, and Tenderness of Lamb." J of Food Science 41: 748-756.
Smith, G. C. (1979). "Increasing the Tenderness of Forage-Fed Beef." J of Animal Science 49(5): 1207-1218.
Swanek, S. S., J. B. Morgan, et al. (1999). "Vitamin D3 supplementation of beef steers increases longissimus tenderness." J Anim Sci 77(4): 874-81.
Wheeler, T. L., J. W. Savell, et al. (1990). "Effect of postmortem treatments on the tenderness of meat from Hereford, Brahman and Brahman-cross beef cattle." J Anim Sci 68(11): 3677-86.
Wood, J. D., M. Enser, et al. (1999). "Manipulating meat quality and composition [In Process Citation]." Proc Nutr Soc 58(2): 363-70.
Whipple, G., M. Koohmaraie, et al. (1990). "Effects of high-temperature conditioning on enzymatic activity and tenderness of Bos indicus longissimus muscle." J Anim Sci 68(11): 3654-62.
Wilhelm, K. E., B. B. Marsh, et al. (1982). "High-temperature tenderizing of beef sides: bacterial considerations." Appl Environ Microbiol 44(5): 1244-5.
Wulf, D. M., S. F. O'Connor, et al. (1997). "Using objective measures of muscle color to predict beef longissimus tenderness." J Anim Sci 75(3): 684-92.
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10) Food Safety

Algino, R. J., S.C. Ingham, J. Zhu (2007). "Survey of Antimicrobial Effects of Beef Carcass Intervention Treatments in Very Small State-Inspected Slaughter Plants." Journal of Food Science 72(5): 173-179. Read summary.
 

11) Added health benefits of products from pastured animals

De Vogel, J., Denise Jonker-Termont et al. (2005). “Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon.” Carcinogenesis.

Gorelik, S., M. Ligumsky, et al. (2008). "The Stomach as a ‘Bioreactor’: When Red Meat Meets Red Wine." J Agric Food Chem.        

Massiera, F;  Barbry, P; Guesnet, P; Joly, A; Luquet, S; Brest,, CM; Mohsen-Kanson, T; Amri, E and G. Ailhaud. A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations. Journal of Lipid Research. August 2010. Volume 51, pages 2352-2361.

McAfee, A.J.; E M McSorley; et al. British Journal of Nutrition (2011) Red meat from animals offered a grass diet increases plasma and platelet N-3 PUFA in healthy consumers. Volume 105, pages 80-89

Mercier, Y., P. Gatellier, M. Renerre (2004). "Lipid and protein oxidation in vitro, and antioxidant potential in meat from Charolais cows finished on pasture or mixed diet." Meat Science 66: 467-473.

Smit, Liesbeth A, Ana Baylin, and Hannia Campos. 2010. Conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  Published ahead of print, May 12, 2010.

Waser, M., K. B. Michels, et al. (2007). "Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe." Clin Exp Allergy 37(5): 661-670. Read summary.

McAfee, A.J.; E M McSorley; G J Cuskelly; A M Fearon; B W Moss; J A M Beattie; J M W Wallace; M P Bonham; J J Strain British Journal of Nutrition (2011) Red meat from animals offered a grass diet increases plasma and platelet N-3 PUFA in healthy consumers. Volume 105, pages 80-89

 

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