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Summaries of Scientific References

 

1) Fats in products from pasture-raised and confinement-raised animals

Valeille, K., J. Ferezou, et al. (2006). "The natural concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11, in milk fat has antiatherogenic effects in hyperlipidemic hamsters." J Nutr 136(5): 1305-1310.
           

ABSTRACT: Milk fat is usually considered to be proatherogenic, although its fatty acid composition can vary, due mainly to farming conditions. No study has evaluated whether such variation can modify the atherogenic properties of dairy fat. Aortic lipid deposition and related risk factors were examined in Syrian hamsters fed diets for 12 wk containing 200 g/kg of 2 commercial milk fats [high content of saturated fatty acids (HSF) and low content of saturated fatty acids (LSF)] contrasting, respectively, in total saturated fatty acids (72 vs. 67 g/100 g), 18:1, trans (4.24 vs. 7.26 g/100g), and conjugated linoleic acid (mainly cis-9,trans-11 or rumenic acid; 0.39 vs. 2.59 g/100 g). Hamsters fed the LSF-diet had 25% less aortic cholesteryl-ester deposition than those fed the HSF-diet; this was accompanied by an improved plasma cholesterol profile (lower LDL cholesterol and LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio), a lower local inflammatory status (aortic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2), and lower aortic gene expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (all P < 0.05). Supplementation of the LSF-diet with rumenic acid (up to 9 g/kg) amplified the antiatherogenic effect of the original LSF-diet compared with the HSF-diet, i.e., less aortic cholesterol loading, increased reverse cholesterol transport potential (higher plasma HDL cholesterol concentration and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, transporter 1 gene expression in aorta), and decreased LDL-peroxidability index and gene expression of proinflammatory IL-1beta in the aorta (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that the atherogenic potential of milk fat can be greatly reduced in products with a naturally high abundance of rumenic acid, and argue for increasing this fatty acid in milk.

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